Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Management Challenges Posed By the Role of Information Systems in Organisations - Free Essay Example
Management Challenges Posed By the Role of Information Systems in Organisations Throughout the 20th century, businesses thrived by making their production methods more and more efficient by improving production processes and developing better ways for making things. However, efficiency in production methods is no longer the only success factors in todays business world. The excellence of 21st century lies in Information management i.e. having the right thing, on the right time, in the right quantity. Information is one of the most critical elements for the success of a business. Information has become one of the most significant assets for a business. The performance of a business depends on how it manages this asset like every other assets such as finance, humans, buildings, products, customers, etc. (Ward, 1995). The advancements of Information and Communication technology have provided various tools to effectively manage information. Using information and communication technologies, businesses and organizations nowadays rely largely on Information systems to store and manage and analyse data. Information system is a combination of various subsystems that coordinate with each other to collectively gather, store, manage, retrieve, distribute, and transfer information. Information systems help businesses to enhance their productivity by increasing the efficiency and value of business processes (Porter Millar 1985). Using information technology tools for managing information in conducting business is referred to as E-Business. E-business is a very wide concept comprising of different aspects of business transaction or transferring information by means of Internet. E-business can be classified into three categories. It can be within an organization which may include of various information systems such as Accounting Information System, Knowledge management system, Decision support system, Executive support system, etc. This type of communication technology is called Intranet. The standards used for Intranet are the same as for Internet communication. Accessibility to the Intranet is limited to organization-specific applications or web sites. These web sites and applications are protected against any unauthorized personal by firewalls and other security measures. The second category is involves business-to-business (B2B) communication conducted via Extranet. The Extranet integrate s two Intranets which are inter-connected to each other via Internet, which facilitates two separate organizations to communicate and share confidential data. Thirdly category is the business-to-consumer (B2C) communication which occurs over the Internet. The business-to-consumers activity is the most prominent feature of e-business (Amor, 2001). Purpose of Information Systems The purpose of an information system is to empower its users. There is a wide difference in a simple database which stores data and return it to its users upon request. A database can be created in a way that manages and retrieves information in a sorted manner. This information can help make decision at various levels within an organization. Information system recognize that there are different levels of workers in an organization who have their specific duties and thus provides them information is different ways (Heinrich, 2002). Its purpose is to make sure that the users of the system are quickly able to access, comprehend, and react to the information provided to them. Wiseman (1985) mentions that the information system improves business functionality by automating some of the fundamental information procedures. He further mentions that the information system increases the effectiveness of the management by satisfying their information demands. Information demands of b usinesses vary at different organizational levels. Various business functions at strategic, tactical and operational level have different types of subsystems of information system to serve their information demands. Some of the commonly used subsystems are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Information Systems (MIS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decision Support Systems (DSS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Expert Systems (ES) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Executive Information Systems (EIS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accounting Information Systems (AIS) E-commerce An important component of the information and communication technology and indeed one of its most momentous impacts is the provision and empowerment of electronic commerce. Electronic commerce is a process of buying and selling of products or services by means of electronic systems involving the Internet and e-mails (Graham 2008). Commercial activities performed through e-commerce are either business-to-business (B2B) or business-to-consumers (B2C). E-commerce is a very cost-efficient mode of conducting business-to-consumers commercial activities (Graham 2008). E-commerce allows economic agents to reduce the transactional cost to a great extent (Porter 2001). Instead of internal hierarchies, it empowers the market itself to organize economic activities, which in turn increases the efficiency of the not just the business but across the entire commodity chain (Malone et al. 1987). E-commerce creates a dimension of Ã¢â¬Ëspacelessness for economic activities which is one o f its most distinctive features. Since the emergence of the Internet and increasing use of e-commerce, the imminent Ã¢â¬Å"death of distanceÃ¢â¬ and creation of an Ã¢â¬Ëeight continent has been highlighted by researchers which is spurred by the increasing trade and commerce activities conducted electronically. They assert that constraints such as space and distance are becoming less significant for conducting economical activities (OBrien 1992; Cairncross 1997). A large literature exits regarding various firms having used e-commerce to achieve competitive advantage by finding new and distant customers (for example see Daniel and Grimshaw 2002; Hamill and Gregory 1997; Kim and Mauborgne 1999; OKeefe et al. 1998; Poon and Swatman 1999). Thus information systems also serve the purpose of communication with external business entities for trade and commerce activities. Analysis of the problems of gathering data and analysing information Information systems are a vital tool in achieving competitive advantage for a business by properly managing and analysing the information. However there are many security concerns that have being in the corporate agenda since its early usage. Today organizations are challenged by various and complex information security matters for handling distributed computer networks. Large amount of e-commerce activities, increased usage of internet, and ever changing technologies means new threats and risks and vulnerabilities for businesses as more and more business functions and procedures are becoming paperless. For this purpose, right controls are required within an organization to reduce the risks and ensure effective functioning of the information systems (Sushil Leon, 2004). Information Systems requires certain controls to be implemented for its smooth and effective functionality (Boczko, 2007). Information security managers can put these controls in place to ensure the system is secure against threats, exposure, and risks. (Gertz, 2003). Ã¢â¬ ¢ A threat can be any possible unwanted occurrence or event that could harm the Accounting Information System or the business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The exposure is the possible loss of money that would occur as a result of the threat becoming a reality. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The risk is the chance that the threat will become reality. The controls that secure information systems against unfavourable outcomes are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Preventive Controls Ã¢â¬ ¢ Input Controls; Input controls checks upon the information that is being entered into the system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Processing Controls; Processing controls checks whether the data is processed properly after it is entered in to the system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Output Controls; The output controls ensure the completeness, validity, and accuracy of the data in various output mediums. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Storage Controls; The storage controls ensures that the data in stored in such a manner that it cannot be tampered with. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Files Controls; Files controls reduce the errors that occur due the improper storage of files. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hardware Security; Hardware security control is very important as any damage or harm to the hardware would mean that the failure of the system therefore the hardware for the information system must be kept in a secure place and with only reliable and relevant personal having access to it. Proper protection against high temperature or power failures and incidents should be made along with backup support. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standardization; Standardization controls involves usage of already laid down standards by the developers and operators for the methodology of the system development and operation respectively. (Basset, 1993) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Detective controls Ã¢â¬ ¢ Testing; Testing is required to detect any problems occurring in the system and is thus performed before it is made operational. Testing can shows problems that can occur in the processing and any other errors. It is recommended that testing should be performed on a routine basis or after any new developments. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Training; the training of the data processing staff ensures proper functioning of the system. The awareness of the staff also helps in pointing any defects in the system which could then be resolved. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Operation Controls; Operation controls in Dean Plc are controls which record what computer systems and the employees have been doing. The operational controls can include tasks such as rotation of shifts, duty logs, manual of operating instructions, attendance controls and computer logs, etc. which can referred to whenever a problem is reported. (Basset, 1993) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Corrective controls Ã¢â¬ ¢ When any problem in the system is detected, the management along with the help of Business Analysts and Expert can take relevant steps to correct the problems in the system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Certain procedure can be set for reoccurre nce of the problems. Apart from security concerns, there are several other challenges and issues associated with managing information systems. These are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increase costs of a technological solution (developing, implementing and maintaining of the information technologies and systems) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reliability for certain processes (information systems require thorough testing before they could be used and are difficult prone to errors leading to potential losses) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Software tools are not fixed but constantly evolving (information communication technology tools require timely upgrades to meet prevailing standards) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Integrating digital and non-digital sales and production information (for e-commerce activities) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer fear of personal information being used wrongly (privacy issues) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer have high expectations regarding efficiency and real time responses Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vulnerability to fraud and other crimes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Higher emplo yee training required to effectively using the information technology. Another technological concern regarding information technology is the high volume of data generated from its use and its management. Organizations are required to create robust middleware application that are capable of handling the high amount of data and route it to the appropriate information systems in a timely manner (Ngain and Gunasekaran 2009). Major sources of relevant data used for management information systems As mentioned previously, businesses and organizations have a variety of information requirements. Executives at strategic level require information to help them with their planning and strategic decision making. They require a summarized form of information that can give an overview of the business. Middle management requires more detailed information in order to oversee and control business activities. Operational level employees need basic routine information to carry out their day to day duties. Therefore, businesses have several information systems working altogether at the same time. Different information systems have different sources of gathering data according their purpose. The following presents a list of most commonly used information system and their likely sources of data and users. Executive Support Systems Executive Support System helps the senior management of an organization in making strategic decisions. Executive Support Systems shows the status of all key business activities and involves large data analysis to help strategic decision making. Therefore, it is likely to have information from all the internal and external sources which is gathered, analysed and summarized for strategic decision making. Internal sources include information collected from other information systems. External information system can include external data gathered by e-commerce activities, external market analysis and etc. Management Information Systems Management information system is concerned with the summarized data of the business transactions that helps middle management to monitor business activities. Therefore it is likely to have information from all the internal sources such as transaction processing systems. It summarizes information into management reports. Decision-Support Systems Decision Support Systems are designed to assist middle and top level management in making decisions at uncertain conditions. It informs the user about the possible consequences of their decisions. It gathers internal information to analyse the available options and alternatives. It has a predefined set of logic which is part of its design. It uses complex tools spreadsheets, and databases for creating Ã¢â¬Ëwhat if models. Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge Management Systems are created to help organizations and businesses create and share information. The source of such information systems is typically the employees who create new knowledge through their own expertise and then share it along with others within an organization. This share pool of information is created to search new commercial opportunities. Examples of such information systems are web-portals and Intranet portals created by professional lawyers, management consultants and etc. these information systems categorize and distribute information efficiently among users. Information could be contained in any form and formats such as word processed documents, presentations, web pages and etc. Transaction Processing Systems Transaction Processing Systems are created to process daily repetitive activities and transaction in an automated efficient manner. The automation increases the accuracy of the information. A business usually involves several reoccurring transactions. Therefore, there are several Transaction Processing Systems such as Billing systems, Payroll systems, Inventory management systems, etc. The sources of these information systems are the employees at the operational level or the organization. Sometimes automated identifications are also used to input data to these systems such as Radio Frequency Identification. Office Automation Systems Office Automation Systems are tools that help improve the productivity of employees processing data. Such systems usually work as standalone programs and do not link data to other information systems. Examples of such systems include Microsoft Office Tools, and Computer Operating Systems. References Amor, D., (2001). Introduction to Internet Business. Available from :https://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=165183seqNum=3 (cited on 22nd November, 2010) Basset P.H. (1993) Computerized Accounts, 3rd ed, Manchester : NCC Blackwell. Boczko, T., (2007). Corporate Accounting Information Systems. Financial Times Press Cairncross, F. (1997), The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution will Change our Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Daniel, A. (2001), Introduction to Internet Business. Inform IT Networks Available from https://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=165183seqNum=3 (cited on 22nd November, 2010) Gertz. M., (2003). Integrity and Internal Control in Information Systems. Springer Graham, M. (2008), Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. Available from https://geospace.co.uk/files/compass.pdf (cited on 22nd November, 2010) Hamill, J Gregory, K. (1997), Ã¢â¬ËInternet Marketing in the Internationalisation of UK SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management 13, pp. 9Ã¢â¬â28. Heinrich, L.J. (2002). Informations management. 7th ed.. Munich: Oldenbourg. Kim, C Mauborgne, R. (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"Creating the New Market Space. Harvard Business Review 77, pp. 83Ã¢â¬â93. Ngain. E. and Gunasekaran. A, (2009). RFID Adoption: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 2-8 OBrien, R. (1992), Global Financial Integration: The End of Geography. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press. OKeefe, M. OConnor, G. Kung, J. (1998) Ã¢â¬ËEarly Adopters of the Web as a Retail Medium: Small Company Winners and Losers. European Journal of Marketing 32, pp. 629Ã¢â¬â643. Poon, S Swatman, C. (1999) Ã¢â¬ËAn Exploratory Study of Small Business Internet Commerce Issues. Information and Management 35, pp. 9Ã¢â¬â18. Porter, M. E. (2001). Ã¢â¬ËStrategy and the Internet. Harvard Business Review March 79, pp. 63Ã¢â¬â78. Sushil. J., Leon. Strous. (2004) Integrity and Internal Control On Information Systems VI. Springer Ward. J., (1995) Principles Of Information Systems Management. Routledge Wiseman, C. (1985). Strategy and computers: information systems as competitive weapons.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
He was waiting at the corner of his grandparentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house, probably that was not the first time, but he knew that eventually she would be crossing by. He knew where she lived, her routines. Here she comes seriously dress in black. Long hair pull up from the front, long wavy skirt, black heels shoes, straight and focus in her walking. She is at the corner of her house, ready to turn street, but she notices him, his eyes are desperately looking to meet hers. Finally they meet, she is surprised of that passion and feels the heat in her heart, but she is shy and young, puts her head down and fast and shaking leaves the road. Could this ever happen with an online dating site? Absolutely not; online dating is increasing; according to ABC news article, an estimated 40 million Americans use online dating services in the hope to meet Ã¢â¬Å"The oneÃ¢â¬ . There are more than 1,400 web sites in the $700 million a year business. But, are they safe and truthful as they say on their profile ? Online dating is dangerous because gives an opportunity to sexual predators to hide behind fake profiles and also to scammers to take advantage of personal information and your money; is unnatural to find love using the shopping mentality and shallow to find someone just for the physical appearance; and a waste of time and money because it is not easy to find someone at the first time, according to friends experiences, there are many men and women that lack of seriousness, not everyone on online dating isShow MoreRelatedCauses And Effects Of Online Dating1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is online dating? Online dating is the way of starting a romantic relationship on the social net work by exchange information with someone else include photo, romantic message and songs without see by each other face to face. Millions of people now days are using the online dating to find friends, or soul mate. There are so many websites like Christian mingle, match. com, eharmony. com, our time, fa rmers match.com, and another website only for widow widowers. com. All these websites help toRead MoreOnline Dating Essay863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOnline Dating Some people today feel they cannot meet someone in their everyday lives so they turn to the internet to find a prospective partner, people us the internet as a way of meeting new people Online dating has become the new way of finding your soul mate The internet has made dating more convenient you no longer to have to go out to a bar and spend money trying to impress or you really donÃ¢â¬â¢t have, for people who are shy this is the perfect way to screen a potential in the privacy. I thoughtRead MoreHow Online Dating Is Threatening Monogamy852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesminute it gets tough is due to online dating or whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a personality thing, with a large focus on the convenience of cheating following the invention of online dating. This question was touched on in the first article Ã¢â¬Å"A Million First Dates: How Online Dating is Threatening MonogamyÃ¢â¬ however I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the article really answered the question but was rather just a mere mention of a person s opinion. The article states that Alex Mehr, a co-founder of the dating site Zoosk, was the only oneRead MoreOnline Dating1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOnline dating is a which allows individuals, couples and groups to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal, romantic, or sexual relationship. Match making occurs over the Internet using computers or cellphones. In order to use an online dating service, people start by creating a profile with basic information about themselves such as gender, age, location, and interests, and at least one photo. Most online dating servicesRead MoreWhy Are Online Dating Websites?1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many different online dating websites, so how would you know how to pick the right one. One of the more popular companies is called eHarmony that started in 2000, research by Gupta, Murtha, and Patel supports, under the premise that it matched couples scientifically on 29 dimensions of compatibility. Unlike other dating sites, eHarmony focuses specifically on creating lifelong matches and has marketed the company accordingly. Originally, eHarmony was based on strong Christian principlesRead MoreThe Many Benefits of Online Dating Essays884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesother aspects of our lives conform to the internet, that online dating should also begin to be more prevalent in how we form new romantic re lationships. Online dating is the new normal, and this is more evident now than ever. Online dating gives people searching for a new union an edge that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have before. They are able to Ã¢â¬Å"shopÃ¢â¬ for potential connections before their initial contact. According to Droge and Voirol (2011), online dating is here to stay because it allows people to more carefullyRead MoreOnline Dating Pros and Cons1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOnline dating allows singles, couples, or groups to meet each other online with the hopes of forming a social, romantic, or sexual relationship. Those that sign up with an online dating service typically provide information for other members to view in the form of a personal profile. This personal profile is the main deciding factor as to whether or not an online dater chooses to communication with another member of the online dating service. Online dating, a relatively new form of social matchmakingRead MoreSocial Medi Effects On Relationships1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrelationships. People who are affected by the change in t heir culture do to society, donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize the change that has occurred. Over the years social media has drastically increased and plays a huge role within relationships causing insecurity. Dating sites like EHarmony, Christian Mingle, and others have grown in popularity. Not only have the dating sites become more predominant, there are even ways to have dates online as opposed to in person. Social media contains social networks like Facebook, InstagramRead MoreOnline Dating And The Internet Essay1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe internet offer online dating or match making services. Despite being a relatively young industry, online dating has already become one of the most profitable types of business found on the internet. Online dating services now attract millions of users every day, and the industry is making hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Online dating provides an efficient way for people to meet with partners and to get to know them through e-mails and chats. Of the many online dating sites, PlentyofFishRead MoreAre Computers Changing the Way Humans Think?988 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthan it has helped. Although computers have benefits such as helping you for school work in making quicker decisions for you, and it makes it easier to do essays by using word; it has also hurt society because it makes us become lazier, makes online dating dangerous, and makes people addicted to the Internet. One benefit of computers is that they help students with school work. Students are able to find things quicker for research papers, etc. Also it can be easier for students to type instead
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Reality television is now one of the most consumed television genres broadcasted to the general public. Reality television has become more about mindless watching and creating the most unrealistic environment possible, rather than creating a show for an important purpose. Today, shows like Beauty and the Geek, Big Brother, and every other reality show fit into this mold, but when viewed critically lessons appear. In the case of TV today, reality shows depict an altered reality because of the unrealistic situations this genre presents. Firstly, Beauty and the Geek claimed they conducted the Ã¢â¬Å"ultimate social experiment,Ã¢â¬ and yet is still considered as a show in the genre of reality TV. Since Beauty and the Geek subsisted as a social experiment, altered variables, such as the environment, influenced participants to conduct themselves in a different way than how they would behave on a regular basis in reaction to the stimuli the show provided. Contestants altered their behavior by sharing a bed with a stranger, and they acted friendly because they were now living with strangers in a home with cameras, so they felt they needed to impress. Beauty and the Geek is comparable to Big Brother because they were both filmed under altered conditions. For Big Brother specifically, the contestants participated under a much more controlled environment by being locked into a compound that was cut off from the rest of the outside world. This meant no TVs, phones, computers, etc., which makesShow MoreRelatedThe Reality Of Reality Television936 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe reality show phenomenon Have you ever wondered what attracts millions of Americans each week to watch this cultural phenomenon know as reality television? It first started in 1948 when Allen Funt created a TV series called Candid Camera, this is the first known reality television show series. Ã¢â¬Å"Reality television episodes have increased up to 57% of all television shows that can be found on your TV guidesÃ¢â¬ (Shocking). Big Brother was one of the first successful and most viewed reality televisionRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages What is it about these reality shows such as: Keeping Up with the Kardashians, Bad Girls Club, and The Real Housewives that we cannot stop watching? After watching reality shows like this, it leaves people craving the next episode of the next week. Reality television producers are exploiting people by giving the public a Ã¢â¬Å"senseÃ¢â¬ of reality but not the real version of it, but rather exploit people and use stereotypes to make money for entertainment. The specific points of this argumentRead MoreThe Reality of Reality Television1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Reality of Reality Television Jacqueline Knudsen ENG122: English Composition II Jenna Fussell February 2, 2013 The Reality of Reality Television Have you ever set there watching your favorite reality television show and wondered what effects it could have on you, your family or your friends? Truth is most people do not think about the effects television shows can have before watching them or allowing their children to watch them. ThisRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBehind the Reality of Reality TV There are many different opinions when the subject of reality television is discussed. Although reality television shows are thought to be negative they really are just mindless entertainment. Many can argue that these shows are misleading and disturbing. On the other side of this, people merely use these shows for entertainment and allow people to forget about stress in their lives. The cause of these different opinions is a result of different age, gender, religionRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAgainst Reality TV For close to a decade, the ethics behind the existence of reality TV have been questioned. While there are ardent viewers of reality TV, researchers and other scholars disapprove them, and claim that the world would have been in a better place. Reality TV shows, especially in America, are extremely profitable to media owners, and this has increased their popularity in the recent years. The main target audience for these shows are teenagers and women, who spend a lot of time discussingRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReality TV is defined as television programs in which real people are continuously filmed, designed to be entertaining rather than informative.(Dictionary) As we all know, in today s world we are presented with numerous Reality TV Show such as Keeping up With the Kardashians, Basket wives and The Real Housewives of Miami. These shows give a false message to their viewers of what is reality and what is purely entertainment. Many reality programs create an artificial environment for the show thatRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWe see content on television every day either to see the news, watch a movie, series or any program we would like to watch. Television give us a different and visually perfect way of entertainment. Reality television is a genre of television which seems to be unscripted showing actions of Ã¢â¬Å"real lifeÃ¢â¬ . The viewer sees the reality shows for entertainment but neither the pressure, competitiveness nor loneliness that lives in imagines. To be real -time and people- admiration from viewers, thinking thatRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television Essay1973 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction Reality television has turned into a noteworthy piece of our way of life. The shows are described to be fun, engaging and acquaint society with new points of view. In the wake of a monotonous day at work, it s decent to return home and watch something careless on television, while unwinding. While the debate that violence in the media is making for a brutal culture has been made a million times, sometime recently, I am striving to make an alternate relationship. As we are aware, theRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television Essay1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReality television has taken off over the past few years bringing shows to the airwaves such as the Bachelor and Breaking Amish. One of the more successful reality television shows, which is going off the air after this season, is Duck Dynasty. The show features a cast of redneck white males who have created a fortune making handmade duck calls. Their wives are the typical stay at home moms who cook and clean the house, or as Uncle Si would say, wifely duties. The show is shot in West Monroe, LouisianaRead MoreReality Television : Is It Reality?849 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs it Reality? Pop culture is popular culture that dominates a society at a point in time. Today, reality television is a part of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s popular culture (Johnson 289). The question is why? Reality television is a genre of television programming that focuses on members of the public living in conditions made by the creator, and displays how people are intended to behave in everyday life (Johnson 290). Reality television is debasing and should be strictly controlled, if not banned altogether
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theMoise Butoyi for Marketing Communications. Answer: Theme Full reference Golden threads and evaluation of data source Frames Methods 1. Legal forms Hiller (2013) Improvement in connection between corporate and the society. The legislature allowed independent corporate status. Individual petitions. 2. Dissemination Blankespoor, Miller, White (2013) Dissemination of DAIT enhances symmetry of information of firms. Application of new information technology. Analysis of use of Twitter by firms. 3. Social responsibility Andr (2012) Improved in delivering of social responsibility by the Gray Sector Organization. Identification of benefit corporation and application of theory to analyze its design. Examination of statutes that established benefit corporation in the US. 4. Non-profit organization Stecker (2016) Adoption in behavior of of-profit organization to gain sustainability. Sale of modified enterprises, creation of revenue streams. Enactment of legislatration. 5. Social media Lee, Hutton, Shu, (2015) Use of social media led to improved capital market. Use of social media platforms. Sampling. 6. Model Legislation Loewenstein (2016 Uniformity in benefit corporation legislation Adoption of non-Model Legislation. Uncertain. Social media is a technology that basis on the web, enabling individuals to create, share, and exchange data via networks and social communities. They are more accessible thus allow any person to publish information. Social media allows an organization reach a vast network of customers as well as stakeholders with a message directly and quickly. Also, social media such as the use of Facebook allows multi-dimensional interactions, giving users an opportunity to have a conversation online, with the stakeholders and customers (Murray, (2014). It also enables an organization to bypass intermediaries and spread its messages to a large number of users, without being filtered by traditional media. Social, environmental responsibility is a requirement of the benefit corporation that provides legal protection to assist maximize shareholder profits as well as pursuing an ecological need or agenda. It serves to improve, preserve, and to meet any other requirement for society and the environment. The new Gray Sector Organization thus helps improve social responsibilities. A Benefit Corporation is a legal entity whose obligations are pursuing public benefits, as well as improving returns of the shareholders (Hansmann, (1981). It is a corporate type of business inclusive of the traditional organizational features and societal responsibilities such as preserving the environment, enhancing human health, availing communities with products and services that are of benefit. A B Corp is an entity that prioritizes with shareholders value maximization excluding the value created for all stakeholders (Smith, Zook, (2011). This is done by enhancing credible investment, vailing ratings that are used by investors, and advocate an environment that can be socially useful. Benefit Corporation, on the other hand, addresses shareholders wealth maximization, changing the obligations of officers to incorporate both social and environmental conservation. Social and environmental activities related to measures of conserving the environment, enhancing public health, and delivering public benefits to the society. A BC must deliver the benefits to the public (positive impact on the environment and the society that is compared to a third-party standard ad) (Lee, Hutton, Shu, (2015). The third standard then chooses an authentic, self-standing, and a transparent part to prepare a report. The directors then enforce a right to adopt the benefit purpose in the decision making. Transparency is also vital, hence an independent director should be identified. Lastly, enforcement, the legal action is put into place to bring public benefit. Reference Hansmann, H. B. (1981). Reforming nonprofit corporation law.University of Pennsylvania Law Review,129(3), 497-623. Lee, L. F., Hutton, A. P., Shu, S. (2015). The role of social media in the capital market: evidence from consumer product recalls.Journal of Accounting Research,53(2), 367-404. Murray, J. (2014). Social Enterprise Innovation: Delaware's Public Benefit Corporation Law. Smith, P. R., Zook, Z. (2011).Marketing communications: integrating offline and online with social media. Kogan Page.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Religious Art Versus Secular Art During the Middle Age Paper Comparison of Secular Art During the Middle Age and Religious Art During the Middle Age, art in Europe was characterized as having deep and strong connection to religion. Italy, where the influence of Christianity was largely seen, holds some of the most brilliant artists of the time. These includes Giotto di Bondone and Caravaggio, two Italian painters who were critically acclaimed because of their exceptional works. Although the level of their talents are comparable, their difference with their preference in the themes of their works sets them apart from each other. Historical Context: The Arts During the Middle Ages The Middle Age is said to have started with no exact date. Diebold, 2001). However, some scholars believe that it started after the fall of the great Roman empire, around the fifth century. The Middle Ages lasted until the 15th century, before the rise of the age of Modernity. At the fall of the Roman empire, only one institution remained to be strongthe church. It has become a universal and powerful institution. ( Lethaby, 1971). Because of this, the arts during the Middle Age was primarily a reflection of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s religion. Most of the themes of artistic creations were anchored with religious stories and beliefs. We will write a custom essay sample on Religious Art Versus Secular Art During the Middle Age specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Religious Art Versus Secular Art During the Middle Age specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Religious Art Versus Secular Art During the Middle Age specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer However, during the early Middle Age, Christianity was a religion perceived differently by Romans and Greeks. While Christianity promotes humility and divinity, Hellenistic belief was purely earthly and towards worshipping of nature. (Tillman and Cahn, 1969). That it why artistic works with theme like Christianity this was highly forbidden. It was during the Byzantine period when Christianity has been finally accepted in the societies. It was also in this period when the arts marked its highest point during the Middle Age. Giotto di Bondone was born at this particular time. The late Middle Age, on the other hand, was a specific point for change. People have learned the need for modern ideas and progress with their governments and societies. The arts during this point marks the decline for traditional ideas but the start of accepting modernity. Caravaggio was born during this point of transformation. Religious Art As Seen in GiottiÃ¢â¬â¢s Works Religious art was mostly characterized as any form of artistic creation that employs religion in style and meaning. During the Middle Age, artistic works are known because of their general characteristics. In the field of visual arts, artists found a new way to depict their creativity. They emphasized emotion and hierarchy ( Lethaby 1971). One of the most salient characteristics of paintings with religious themes is the impressive depiction of the divine cosmos. Every icon or image in the painting plays an important role to the overall meaning of the artwork. Usually, the paintings represent a significant religious event. An example is GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The EpiphanyÃ¢â¬ , ( which depicts an important event in the Christian religion the manifestation of Christ to the Magi as the Son of the King. Other images present in the painting were Mary, Joseph, and the angels. Another important point that should be considered in religious paintings is the way the artist should portray the religious images. According to Diebold (2001), the artist should portray the religious icon as clearly and as visible as he could, including its personal features. In that way, the spectators would get easily connected to the image in the paintings. A good example of how this principle was applied by Giotto is his Ã¢â¬Å"Flight into EgyptÃ¢â¬ . This painting shows the famous picture of Mary riding in an ass during her pregnancy. On GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s version, though, Jesus the Child is already part of the picture, riding in the ass with Mary. This is probably part of GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s portraying the religious icon as clearly and as visible as possible. The presence of halos in the heads of Joseph, Mary, Jesus, and the angel also proved the intention of the creator to connect easily the painting to his spectators. The use of halos was also employed to indicate the people they are representing. This only means that religious icons during the time were given a lot of emphasis. Secular Art as Seen in CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s Works Although Middle Age art was primarily focused with religious themes and ideas, the entrance of the late Middle Period marked new changes in this tradition. Some visual artists chose to use secular ideas as themes for their artworks. One of these artists is Caravaggio. Secular paintings in the late Middle Age were characterized as aesthetically appealing and products of the imagination and ingenuity. As compared to religious paintings, secular paintings did not use religious texts or manuscripts as reference to their works. Basically, secular artists provided their own genuine images through their imagination. Example of this kind of painting is CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Boy Bitten by a LizardÃ¢â¬ (Kitson, 1967). The painting is an example of how Caravaggio used his pure imagination in order to depict the boy. The image was also appealing to the eyes of the viewers. With his realistic way of painting the boy, it seems that one is looking at a real person. Because of this, CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings, or secular paintings in particular, depict more of the human life rather than the divine cosmos. Secular paintings during the period were easily recognized with the presence flowers, garlands, and beautiful background scenes. In addition,, the paintings were there to represent something that has a socio-cultural value. CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"BacchusÃ¢â¬ (Kitson, 1967) was such a perfect example. The artist used images of flowers and garlands to adorn the central image Bacchus. Giotto vs. Caravaggio Although both painters had lived during the Middle Age in Italy, they seemed to be e not colliding with each other. Both painters possess exceptional talent in the field of visual arts. However, they were still different from each other in terms of their style, ideas, and contributions. Being a religious artist. Giotto was accustomed in doing artistic works based on the teachings of the Christian religion. Most of the images he used fell under this specific theme. When compared with those themes created by Caravaggio, GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings are purely founded in religion. This could be attributed to his training in CimabueÃ¢â¬â¢s custody. CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s works, on the other hand, were purely realistic. Aesthetically speaking, those of CarravagioÃ¢â¬â¢s are more appealing and vividly captured. Apparently, the images he used were purely creative by his imagination and not bounded by any religious scenarios. This could be attributed to the time of his birth the late Middle Age, which was characterized as the period before modernity fully arise. Finally, Giotto and Caravaggio were different from each other due to their orientations. While Giotto could paint religious-related images, Caravaggio could use his imagination to direct him with his works.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Solomon03 Web Essay Solomon03 Web Essay Chapter 3 Learning and Memory By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition 3-1 The Learning Process Learning: Ã¢â¬â A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Incidental Learning: Ã¢â¬â Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge Learning is an Ongoing Process: Ã¢â¬â Constantly being revised Ã¢â¬â Can be either simple association (logo recognition) or complex cognitive activity (writing an essay) 3-2 Learning is a Process Our tastes are formed as a result of a learning process, sometimes with painful results. 3-3 Behavioral Learning Theories Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events. View is represented by two major approaches to learning: Ã¢â¬â 1) Classical Conditioning Ã¢â¬â 2) Instrumental Conditioning PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences shaped by feedback they receive as they go through life Actions result in rewards and punishments, which influences future responses to similar situations. 3-4 The Consumer as a Ã¢â¬Å"Black BoxÃ¢â¬ A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning Figure 3.1 3-5 Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s Dogs Ã¢â¬â Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Ã¢â¬â Naturally capable of causing a response. Ã¢â¬â Conditioned stimulus (CS) Ã¢â¬â Does not initially cause a response Ã¢â¬â Conditioned response (CR) Ã¢â¬â Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS. Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR. 3-6 Discussion Question In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, the Lacoste crocodile was an exclusive logo symbolizing casual elegance. When it was repeated on baby clothes and other items, it lost its cache and began to be replaced by contenders such as the Ralph Lauren Polo Player. Can you thing of other logos that have lost their prestige due to repetition? 3-7 Classical Conditioning in Advertising This American Airlines ad points to classical conditioning as an explanation for why their AAdvantage Marketing Programs will work. Can you identify the UCS, CS, and the CR in this example? 3-8 Classical Conditioning (cont.) Stimulus generalization: Ã¢â¬â Tendency of a stimulus similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses Masked branding: Deliberately hiding a productÃ¢â¬â¢s true origin Stimulus discrimination: Ã¢â¬â Occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS. 3-9 Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles Brand Equity: Ã¢â¬â A brand has strong positive associations in a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s memory and commands loyalty. Applications of Repetition Applications of Conditioned Product Associations: Ã¢â¬â Semantic associations Ã¢â¬â Phonemes 3 - 10 Loyalty to Brands Rewarding consumers with frequent flyer miles is an effective way to reinforce them and build brand loyalty. 3 - 11 Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles (cont.) Applications of Stimulus Generalization: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging Applications of Stimulus Discrimination: Ã¢â¬â Consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitors Ã¢â¬â Unique attributes of the brand 3 - 12 Instrumental Conditioning Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomes A.K.A. Ã¢â¬Å"Operant ConditioningÃ¢â¬ Occurs one of three ways: Ã¢â¬â Positive reinforcement Ã¢â¬â Negative reinforcement Ã¢â¬â Punishment 3 - 13 Positive Reinforcement The power of positive reinforcement. 3 - 14 Instrumental Conditioning (cont.) Extinction: When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained. Reinforcement Schedules: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Fixed-interval reinforcement Variable-interval reinforcement Fixed-ratio reinforcement Variable-ratio reinforcement 3 - 15 Four Types of Learning Outcomes Figure 3.2 3 - 16 Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles Reinforcement of Consumption: Ã¢â¬â Thank you Ã¢â¬â Rebates Ã¢â¬â Follow-up phone calls Frequency Marketing: Ã¢â¬â Reinforces
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Marketing - Essay Example 379). With the convenience of having an own bathroom allows the guests to enjoy their bath. After all, it is less convenient if guests will need to leave their rooms and compete for the use of a common bathroom. In addition, crowding may occur if public bathrooms are the only ones available in the hotel that might decrease the number of customers of Ritz Carlton. Ritz Carlton also maintains its high number of guests by keeping their services top-of-the-line. They train their employees to project the best of their service by following three conditions: welcoming the guests with a salutation using their names, attending to the needs of the customers, and saying a polite goodbye to leaving clients (Last name of textbookÃ¢â¬â¢s author, year, p. 379). The three aforementioned conditions boost the overall hospitality of the employees to the guests of their hotel. The customers will feel their importance once the service providers address them personally. Studies supports the claims regar ding the relationship development can be boosted by face and name recognition. By addressing the clients personally, the connection is built and transformed from pseudo relationships to paying and loyal customers (OÃ¢â¬â¢Fallon and Rutherford, 2011, p. 30). ... 116). In Ritz Carlton, their employees are constantly reminded regarding the service values by the unique method of the managers. Each manager carries a laminated list of the service values to consistently remind their employees to follow them (Last name of textbookÃ¢â¬â¢s author, year, p. 379). In addition, the constant reminder adds confidence to the employees to exert their best efforts to accommodate the guests nicely. Those actions contribute to the increase in loyal customers of the hotel and keep up with the competition. The top-of-the-line hospitality in Ritz Carlton is also influenced by the successful and unique strategy done by the management together with the employees. Everyday the managers remind their employees about their values and mission by spending 15 minutes of story-telling regarding the unique instances that happened in the hotel. Those captured moments were retold to boost the employee confidence since the stories serve as role models in building rapport and rendering the best services to their clients. The true stories also recognize the employee who showed exemplary actions to please their guests and even meet the unexpected needs of the clients (Last name of textbookÃ¢â¬â¢s author, year, p. 379). In response, employees are motivated more than before since they would like to be appreciated like the exemplary workers in the wow stories shared everyday at Ritz Carlton Hotel. They can boost their service quality by feeling good and imagining that it is also possible for them to be praised by the management when they get to display an exemplary example (Bidgoli, 2010, p. 402). In addition, it has been proven